THE RISE OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE IN 1848 FREE THE NATION ?

The rise of nationalism in Europe initiated with the Spring of Nations in 1848. According to Leon- Baradat, nationalism calls on people to identify with the interests of their national group and to support the creation of a state – a nation-state – to support those interests. Nationalism was the ideological impetus that, in a few decades, transformed Europe. Rule by monarchies and foreign control of territory was replaced by self-determination and newly formed national governments.

NATIONALISM

  • It is a way of felling of people of the European people that the multinational dynastic empires of Europe will emerge as one nation-state( an independent country having same culture and language)

THE  FRENCH REVOLUTION AND THE IDEA OF NATION

*   During 18th century, The French revolution  (1789) make a easy way for modern nation-state. French Revolution stand against the old monarchical oders and develop the feeling of popular nationalism.

The French revolutioneries introduced new ideas like:

● They introduce various practices like la patrie ( the fatherland) and le citoyen ( the citizen) among French people.
● A new flag introduced among the French people.
● A centralized administrative system with uniform law was introduced for all citizens.
● In Paris French was accepted as a common language.

These all steps make a being of collectiveness among people and demand for nation-state.

THE RISE OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE MAKE MANY CHANGES TO THE NATION.

THE RISE OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE

NAPOLEON BONAPARTE  CODE (CIVIL CODE  1804)

Napoleon destroyed democracy in France. But make  very important law’s like:

☆ The code removed all privileges based on the birth, established equality before the law.
☆ Right to property.
☆Make a simplified, administrative system.
☆ Abolished the feudal system and freed the peasants from SERFDOM duties.
☆ Guild system was removed and transportation and communication system was improved.
☆ Standard weight and units was defined and make a one currency for all country.

*** The Rise of nationalism make people live for them ..

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THE RISE OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE MAKE MANY CHANGES TO THE NATION.

THE MAKING OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE

Germany, Italy and Switzerland were divided into kingdoms, duchies and cantons, in mid 18th century rulers have there independent territories. They do not share a collective identity or a common culture which led to rise in nationalism in Europe . These are:
▪ The rise of new middle class.
▪ The spread of ideology of
liberalism.
▪ The new spirit of conservatism.
▪ Treaty of Vienna.
▪ The rise of revolutionary.

THE RISE OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE

THE ARISTOCRACY  AND THE NEW MIDDLE  CLASS

Socially and politically, a landed aristocracy was the dominant class in the continent. They owned estates and property beith in countryside and town house. In Western and Central part of Europe, there was  emergence of commercial classes whose existence was frontiers, while Austria was the control of Northern based on production for the market. Due to Italy industrialisation, the new social groups – working class,  Businessmen, professionals came into being. Or was among the educated, liberal middle classes, the idea of national unity gained popularity.

TREATY OF  VIENNA

◇The Bourbon dynasty which had been deposed during the French revolution was restored to power.

◇France  lost its territory  that had annexed (rule the region by force)  under Napoleon

◇The boards  of states were set up on the boundaries  to prevent its further expansion in future

◇Prussia was given important new territones on its Western side while Austrta was given  control of Northern Iraly.

THE RISE OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE

◇German confederation of 39 states that had been set up by Napoleon was left untouched.

◇In the East, Russia was given part of Poland while Prussia  given a portion  of Saxony.

The main point of the congress was to restore the power of monarch that have been overthrown by Napoleon and create new conservatism in Europe. But liberalism opposed the monarchical form and believe that nation-state is important for France.

THE RISE OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE MAKE MANY CHANGES TO THE NATION.

THE  AGE OF REVOLUTIONS :1830-  1848 

The first upheaval took place in france in July 1830
The July Revolution started in Brussels, which led to Belgium breaking away from the united kingdom of the Netherlands. This is also known as Greek War Of Independent started in 1821 and in 1832 Greek is recognized as independent nation.

HUNGER  HARDSHIP AND POPULAR REVOLT

The 1380s  were the year of economic hardship in Europe. In 19th century the population of Europe increases rapidly. Large population from rural areas migrated to cities to live in overcrowded slums.

In 1845, weavers of silesia  village have led to revolt against contractors who supplied them raw material and give them orders for finished textiles but they give them very low wages.

On 4th June at 2 pm, a large group of weavers marched in pairs against the contractor demand for high wages. But they were depressed with the help of army.

In 1848, food shortage and widespread unemployment brought the population of Paris out on the roads. Louis Philippe the famous nationalist was forced to flee.

THE RISE OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE

THE MAKING OF GERMAN AND ITALY

UNIFICATION OF GERMANY

1815: German Confederation former by 39 German states.

1848: Berlin rioters gained liberal constitution for the kingdom.

1861: Wilhelm 1 succeeded to the throne.

1862: minister Otto Von Bismarck was chosen to be the Prime minister.

1864: Prussia and Austria allied and fought Denmark to win border provinces.

1866: Austria declared war called seven week’s war.

1867: Remaining states joined the North German Confederation.

1870: Prussia won the Franco-Prussia War.

THEN UNIFICATION OF GERMANY.

THE RISE OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE

UNIFICATION OF ITALY

Announcement of united Italy. In 1860, the army marched into south Italy and the kingdom of the Two Sicilies and Succeeded in winning the support of the local peasants in order to drive out the Spanish rulers. In 1861, Victor Emmanuel 2 was proclaimed king of united Italy. In 1860 the entire central Italian states were united with Piedmount.

THE RISE OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE MAKE MANY CHANGES TO THE NATION.

THEN UNIFICATION OF ITALY

VISUALISING THE NATION

Artists in the 18th and 19th century  found away out by personifying nation. Nations were then proposed as female figures. The female figures became an Allegory of the nation. In France, the female allegory was christened Marianne and Germania became the allegory of the German  Nation.  

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The cuisine of Lucknow Awadh : Dish 5 is Best

First Let we talk about what is ” cuisine “. Cuisine is a style or method of cooking, especially as characteristic of a particular country, region, or establishment.

The other name of Lucknow know as the city of Nawabs in which cuisine have taste of different types of Spice’s and herbs included and wast kind of curry’s , Breads , gravy also included in the cuisine of Lucknow the foods and ingredients are expensive and royal like saffron, royal cumin, mace, nutmegs, cobra saffron, sandalwood, etc. In which foods and culture see the mughal influence

Unique Ingredients of Cuisine

Spices like allspice (kebabchini), royal cumin (shahi jeera), mace (javitri), saffron
(kesar), baobeer, dried lemon grass (jarakush), sandalwood, rose petals, alum, vetiver etc .

A popular spice mix called Lazzat –e –� taam
Used to flavouring dishes.

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Special equipments

Deg : A pear shaped copper vessels.

Lagan : A heavy and round copper vessels deep and thick base.

Mahi tawa : Similar like a dosa tawa but curve into the out sides higher sides resembling a paraat.

Awadh dishes

Sheermal : A flaky bread made with refine flour, milk, and saffron, are added baked in tandoor or oven.

Sheermal-cuisine

Shammi kebab : Shammi Kebab is a popular in Lucknow non vegetarian snack recipe prepared using mutton and chana dal with the vast types of spices adding.

 Shammi-kabab-cuisine

Kakori kebab : Kakori kebab is an authentic Indian kebab with finely used of mutton
with spices, charcoal grilled on a skewer.

kakori-kabab-cuisine

Rizala : Rizala gravy is usually made with meat cooking in ghee by combining white gravy with spices and cooked curd.

Rizala-cuisine

Pulao – Pulaos were popular in Awadhi cuisine and made from best long grain fragrant rice and Spice’s and meat stock are addeding.

Pulao-cuisine

Galavati kebab : Made so as to melt in mouth these are also popular as tunde ke kebab. Made by keema from breast of lamb and cooked on mahi tawa the texture is like a paste using Variety of spices.

 Galavati-kabab-cuisine

Shahi tukda : Deep fried pieces of bread dipped in sugar syrup and rabri is poured over it. It is decorated with chopped nuts.

Shahi-tukda-cuisine

For this article we have to special thanks to Mr. Kunal Jaidev. Who wrote this article ” The cuisine of Lucknow/Awadh ” with his full hard work. We are grateful for your article.

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Power Sharing : Example 3 is Best

Power sharing means to share power among different organ of the government such as legislative, executive and judiciary.

Let take examples of two country and try to understand why power sharing is important in a country.

                          Belgium

Geographical position :-
•  Small country in Europe.
•  It shared its border with Netherlands, France and Germany.

Area and population :-

•  It is smaller than the Indian state of Haryana.
• It has a population of a little over 1 crore, about the half of Haryana.

Ethnic composition (a shared divison based on shared culture):-

Power Sharing

• It has two main languages : Dutch and French.
• Out of the total population , 59%  people lives in the Flemish region and speak Dutch language.
• 40% people live in the wallonia region and speak French.
• Remaining 1% population speak German.
• But in capital city Brussels, 80% people speak French while 20% Dutch speaking.
• The minority French speaking people are more rich and powerful than the Dutch speaking people.
• Dutch speaking people are angry because they got the benifit of economic development and education much later.
• The tension between two communities during 1950 and 1960 are more acute in Brussels. The Dutch speaking constituted a majority in the country but minority community in the capital.

Remember the definition of power sharing is :a policy agreed between political parties or within a coalition to share responsibility for decision-making and political action.

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                           Sri lanka

Geographical position :-

A smaller island nation in Asia , just a few kilometer off the southern coast of Tamil Nadu.

Population :-

It has about two crore people (same as Haryana).

Ethnic composition :-

• The major  social groups are the Sinhala speaker (74%) and the Tamil speakers (18%).
• Among Tamils there are two sub groups : Tamil natives of the country are called Sri Lankan Tamils (13%). And the rest whose forefathers come from India as plantation workers during collection nial period are called Indian Tamils.
• Sri lankan Tamils are concentrated
in the north and east of the country.
• Most of the Sinhala speaking are Buddhist while most of the Tamils are Hindus or Muslims.
• There are 7% Christians, who are both Tamils and Sinhalas.

Remember the definition of power sharing is :a policy agreed between political parties or within a coalition to share responsibility for decision-making and political action.

Power Sharing

Majortarianism in Sri Lanka :-

Majortarianism –  A belief that the majority community should be able to rule a country in whichever way it wants, by  disregarding the wishes and needs of the minority.

• Sri Lanka emerged as an independent country in 1948. The leaders of the Sinhala community sought to secure dominance over government by virtue of their majority.

• As a result, the democratically elected government adopted majoritarian measures to establish Sinhala supremacy.

• In 1956, an act was passed to recognise Sinhala, as the only official language, this disregarding Tamil.

• The government followed policies that favoured Sinhala applicants for university position and government jobs.

Remember the definition of power sharing is :a policy agreed between political parties or within a coalition to share responsibility for decision-making and political action.

• With a new constitution, Buddhism was adopted as the new state religion.

• Measures taken in majortarianism gradually increased the feeling of protest Among Sri Lankan Tamils.

• They felt that the constitution and government policies denied them equal political rights. And they were discriminated in getting jobs and other opportunities and ignored their interests.

• As a result, the relation between Sinhalas and Tamil community got strained over them.

• The Sri Lankan Tamils launched parties and struggles for the recognition of Tamil as an official language l, regional autonomy and equality of opportunities and in getting education and jobs.

• By the 1980, several political organisation were formed demanding an independent Tamil Elam(state) in northern and eastern part of Sri Lanka.
For example, LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam) was formed in 1980.

• The distrust between the two communities turned into widespread conflict. It soon turned into a civil war. As a result, thousands of people of both the communities were killed.

Accommadation (agreement) in Belgium :-

• The constitution describes that the number of Dutch and French speaking ministers shall be equal in the central goveenment. Thus no single community can make decision unilaterally.

• Many powers of the central govternment have been given to state government. The state government are not to subordinate to the central government.

• Brussels have a seprate government in which both the communities have equal representation.

• There is a third kind of government called the community government . This government is elected by the people belonging to one language community –  Dutch, French and German, no matter where they live.

Remember the definition of power sharing is :a policy agreed between political parties or within a coalition to share responsibility for decision-making and political action.

Importance of power sharing in democracy

The two reasons are pruendential reasons and moral reasons. Pruendential means based on careful calculation of gains or losses.

Pruendential reasons :-

• Power sharing helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between the social groups. Thus it ensures the stability of political order
• It’s absence results into imposition will by majority over minority as we see in Sri Lanka.

Moral reasons :-

• A democratic rule involves it with those affected by its exercise and who have to live with its effect.
• A legitimate govt. is that in which  citizens have a role in decision making process .

Different forms of power sharing in modern democracies :-

1. Power shared among different organs of the government.

• In it power is shared among legislative , executive and judiciary.
• It is also called horizontal distribution of power because all these organs are placed at the same level.
• Such a seperation ensures that none of the organs can exercise unlimited powers.
• Each organ make a eye over each other, which results in balance of power among various institutions.

2. Power shared among government at different levels.

• There was s a government for the entire country which is called central or union government.
• And the government at regional level is called state government.
• In India government is divided into central level, state level and local government.
• It is called vertical division of power as power is divided among higher and lower level of government.

Remember the definition of power sharing is :a policy agreed between political parties or within a coalition to share responsibility for decision-making and political action.

3. Power sharing among different social groups.

• Community government of belgium is agood example of it.
• power is shared among social groups  such as religious and linguistic groups.
• This method is used to give minority communities a fair share in power.
• In India, we have the system of reserved constituencies in the assemblies and parliament.
• This type of arrangement is made to give space in the government and administration to diverse social groups who otherwise feel aliented(angry) from the government.

4. Power sharing among political parties , pressure groups and movement.

• In a democracy, the citizen must have freedom to choose among various  competitor for power.
• When there is competition, it ensures that power does not remain in one hand .
• In the long run, power is shared among different political parties that represent different ideologies and social groups. This type of govt.  is called coalition government.
• Many interest groups like traders, bussinessman, farmers, industrial workers also have a share in government power either way through participation and influencing decision making.

Moreover about political parties we can learn in our next article .

Remember the definition of power sharing is :a policy agreed between political parties or within a coalition to share responsibility for decision-making and political action.

For this article we have to special thanks to Mr. Manpreet Singh. Who wrote this article ” Power Sharing ” with his full hard work. We are grateful for your article.

One word, before we finish. We shall be grateful for your feedback. It will help us improve our services. Thanks in advance!

COVID-19 : BIGGEST PROBLEM

In this article we are going to talk about COVID-19 which is caused by novel corona virus and how we protect themselve from this deadly disease. Without wasting any time let’s go back to our topic.

In present time, the whole world is suffering from a disease known as COVID-19. This disease is caused by novel coronavirus SARS-COV-2(severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2). COVID – 19 is an ancornym which stands for:

CO (Corona)
VI (Virus)
D (Disease of)
19 (2019)

It is started in Wuhan, China in late 2019 and later spread in entire world.
It is proven deadly disease as it kills thousand of people everyday.

Symptoms of COVID-19

1. Fever
2. Common cold
3. Lung infection (pneumonia)
4. Chest pain
5. Breathing problem
6. Kidney failure
7. Headache
8. Cough (especially dry cough)
9. Tiredness

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How it is spreading ?

• It is transmitted by direct contact with infected person.

• It is also transmitted by indirect contact with surfaces or objects used by the infected person.

COVID-19

• It is transmitted through respiratory droplets which enters in air after sneezing or coughing.

Preventions of COVID-19:-

1. Wash your hands for 20 seconds with soap and water or alcohol based sanitizer.
2. Stay home.
3. Self isolated in home if you are feeling unwell.
4. Wear face mask while going outside the home.
5. Keep a distance of 1m who are coughing or sneezing.
6. Do not touch your face or eyes with your hands. Because you touch many objects with your hands which may be have novel coronavirus on it . Then it enter into our body through eyes or mouth.
7. Isolation of persons travelling from affected countries or places for at least 14 days.
8. Cover your mouth with your elbow while sneezing or coughing.
9. Do not go at crowded places.
10. Don’t ignore symptoms of virus infection.
11. Avoid travelling.

COVID-19

Some myths realted to COVID-19 :-

• COVID-19 is transmitted through pets.

• COVID-19 is spread by eating chicken, eggs and meat.

• Vaccines are available for the treatment of COVID-19 infection.

• COVID-19 is spread through dead body of a infected person.

Is there any vaccine available for the treatment of COVID-19 ?

Currently there is no vaccine is available for the treatment of this infection.

What  we can do if some mild symptoms of COVID-19 are seen ?

If you have fever and common cold and you don’t whether it is normal fever. Wait for 2-3 days if you feel better after 2-3 days then it is normal fever otherwise it may be COVID-19 infection. Then you need to consult a doctor or go hospital and admit yourself .

But that 2-3 days you need to self isolated from your family. So, that you not infected your family members. Take proper rest . Drink a plenty of drinks. keep warm yourself.

How are at higher risk for severe illness from COVID-19 ?

1. People who are above 60s .
2.  People who have heart problems.
3. Diabetes patients.
4.  Asthma patients.
5. People who have diseases which weakened the immunity system like AIDS, lungs cancer,
6. Those people who have habit of smoking.

What can novel corona virus do after enter into body ?

When it enter into human body it targets the throat cell, lungs cell. Those cells which are affected started forming new novel coronavirus. It damages inflammation of mucous membrane and damages air sacs in lungs.

COVID-19

What is the best method to control novel coronavirus ?

As currently there is no vaccine is available for the treatment of COVID-19. Therefore social isolation is best method to control novel coronavirus.

Is COVID-19 is a contigental disease (present in a baby from birth) ?

Since there is no report in which COVID-19 infection is passed on baby from his/her mother during pregnancy. So, we can say that it is non contigental disease.

How much time novelcorona virus take to show its presence in human body ?

If someone is affected from novel coronavirus then within 14 days novel coronavirus shows its presence in human body. \

Those who are suffering from novel coronavirus should die or not ?

There are 90% chances that we should not die after affecting novel coronavirus. But it depends upon our arrival immunity system.

For this article we have to special thanks to Mr. Manpreet Singh. Who wrote this article ” COVID-19 Precautions and Symptoms ” with his full hard work. We are grateful for your article.

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Extinction of species due to human activities : 11 Effects Check Now

In the article we are going to talk about various activities which are responsible for  the extinction of species . So, without wasting time let’s back to our main topic.

“Human is responsible for extinction of species”. This statement is true as human is responsible for extinction of species in various ways. Some species are extinct and some are at the stage of endangered. Therefore it is is high time for us to aware and defilled the nature. Otherwise nature won’t spare us .

Some ways in which human is responsible for extinction of species:-

1. Poaching

Humans kill wild animals for the sake of their skin, teeth , etc .which  they used to earn money. No doubt, government took many measures to prevent poaching. Government recognise many forests as wildlife sanctuaries . But still many cases of poaching occur everyday. The Asian Lions are at the stage of extinct due to poaching. They are only found in Gir forest of Gujarat. Tigers are also counted in  endangered species. In 1973 government launched project tiger for the protection of tigers especially bengal tiger. The main aim of the project tiger was to reduce the factors which are responsible for the decrease in number of tigers.

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2. Deforestation

As population increases humans want more land to build houses, construct dams, to construct railway tracks, and many institutions as per their requirements. But land is limited, so, to fulfill their needs they cut down the forests . Apart from this human also cuts trees to make paper. Due to which many ammals lost their shelter and ran away nearby villages where they are killed by humans. Due to deforestation we not only loss a variety of animal species, we also loss a large variety of trees(flora).

Extinction of species

3. Global warming

The rise in temperature is called global warming. Temperature increases due to greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, which is realised from many factories, industries, vehicles, textiles, etc. As temperature increase gradually day by day one day will come when all the ice from north pole and south pole will melt. And we will lost many animals.

4. Water pollution

Factories and Industries realease many harmful and toxicated chemicals into rivers and streams which further connected into seas and oceans. Due to these chemicals many aquatic animals has been died.

5. Thermal pollution

The water which is used to cool down the machines after heavy work is directly realease into rivers which result in rise in temperature of water. Due to which many aquatic animals has been died.

6. Construction of dams

When dams are made it submerge a large amount of forest land,  displace local community. Due to the construction of dams we loss various species .

7. Land pollution

We use many chemicals substances like fertilizers to increase productivity of the field. These chemicals enter into our food chain. These chemicals increased at each tropic level.  Due to these chemicals (DDT)  the outer layer of egg(calcium carbonate) is did not made or weakly made. As a result population of  many birds are decreasing.

Besides this there are so many reasons where human is responsible for extinction of species.

Effects of extincton of species:-

1. Ecosystem will be destroyed.

2. Food chain will be effect.

3. Our future generation will not be able to see many species.

4. Loss of biodiversity.

5. Flood

6. Earthquake

7. Droughts

8. Tsunami

And so on…..

Overall conclusion is that we need to come together and take some steps towards the conservation of species (including flora and fauna)are as follows:

1. Do not waste paper.

2. Try to develop an alternative method    in the place of paper. For example write your notes on computer instead of paper.

Extinction of species

3. Water realease into rivers or streams after proper chemical treatment.

4. Plant more and more trees.

5. Awareness programme to create awareness about planting more trees among people. By telling them the importance of trees.

5. Construction of dams at certain height.

6. Use ESP (Electro Smoke Precipitator) in chimneys to reduce air pollution.

7. Use organic substances like manure instead of chemical substances in fields.

8. Hot water should be released into after cool down.

9. By using CNG instead of petrol in vehicles.

10. Use electronic vehicles.

11. Government launched some strict laws on illegal hunting.Extinction of species Extinction of species Extinction of species Extinction of species Extinction of species Extinction of species

For this article we have to special thanks to Mr. Manpreet Singh. Who wrote this article ” Extinction of species due to human activities ” with his full hard work. We are grateful for your article.

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LIFE PROCESSES :1.NUTRITION MEDIOCRE

THE BASIC FUNCTION PERFORMED BY ORGANISM TO MAINTAIN THEIR LIFE ON EARTH ARE CALLED LIFE PROCESS.

LIFE PROCESSES:

1.NUTRITION
2.RESPIRATION
3.TRANSPORTATION
4.EXCRETION

1.NUTRITION

AUTOTROPHIC NURITION

  • IT IS THE MODE OF NUTRITION IN WHICH ORGANISM SYNTHESISE THEIR OWN FOOD FROM SIMPLE INORGANIC SUBSTANCE SUCH AS WATER AND CARBON  DIOXIDE.
  • GREEN PLAN ARE AUTOTROPHS . THEY SYNTHESISE FOOD BY THE PROCESS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS.
  • PHOTOSYNTHESIS IS A PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS BY WHICH PLANT CELLS CONTAINING CHLOROPHYLL PRODUCE FOOD IN THE FORM OF CARBOHYDRATES USING CARBON DIOXIDE , WATER AND LIGHT ENERGY.
  • CHLOROPHYLL IS THE GREEN PIGMENT FOUND IN GREEN PLANTS .
  • CHLOROPHYLL IS PRESENT IN CHLOROPLAST .
  • CHLOROPLAST IS A MEMBRANE -BOUNDED OVAL CELL ORGANELLE. 
  • IT IS ENCLOSED BY A DOUBLE MEMBRANE . ITS INTERIOR CONTAINS CLOSELY PACKED FLATTENED SACS CALLED THYLAKOID . CHLOROPHYLL IS PRESENT IN THE THYLAKOIDS 
  • THYLAKOIDS ARE ARRENGED IN PILLES CALLED GRANA LYING IN A COLOURLESS GROUND SUBSTANCE CALLED STROMA .
  • CELLS PRESENT IN THEW SPONGY MESOPHYLL LAYER AND THE PALISADE LAYER CONTAIN CHLOROPLASTS ;THEREFORE THEY ARE THE SITE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS.
LIFE PROCESSES

STOMATA 

  • STOMATA ARE MINUTE OPENINGS PRESENT IN THE EPIDERMAL LAYER OF LEAVES .
  • THEY ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR GAS EXCHANGE DURING PHOTOSYNTHESIS.
Stomata

PROCESS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS

  • THE PALISADE  LAYER IS THE CENTRE FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS . LIGHT ENERGY IS TRAPPED IN THE CHLOROPHYLL OF THE MESOPHYLL CELLS IN THE PALISADE LAYER OF LEAVES .
  • THE CHEMICAL EQUATION FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS IS:
photosynthesis

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Life processes are important to carry out daily life activities.

STEPS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS:

  • LIGHT IS ABORBED BY CHLOROPHYLL .
  • LIGHT ENERGY ABSORBED IS CONVERTED INTO CHEMICAL ENERGY .
  • AT THE SAME TIME PHOTOLYSIS OF WATER TAKE PLACE i.e. A WATER MOLECULE IS SPLIT INTO HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN .
  • CARBON DIOXIDE IS CONVERTED INTO GLUCOSE BY USING ATP AND NADPH PRODUCED DURING THE LIGHT REACTION .

CHLOROPHYLL , LIGHT , CARBON DIOXIDE AND WATER ARE NECESSARY FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS.

 

HETEROTROPHIC NUTRITION

____________________________________________________________________

l IT IS A KIND OF NUTRION IN WHICH THE ORGANISM DRIVE ENERGY FROM THE INTAKE AND DIGESTION OF THE ORGANIC SUSTANCE THAT PREPARED BY THE AUTOTROPHS.

l ORGANISMWHICH DEPEND ON ORGANIC SUBSDTANCE PREPARED BY AUTOTROPHS AND OTHER ORGANIC SOURCE I KNOWN AS HETEROTROPHS.

THERE AE FOUR TYPE OF HETEROTROPHIC NUTRITION:-

1. HOLOZOIC NUTRITION : IN THIS MODE OF NUTRITION , AN ORGANISM TAKES THE COMPLEX ORGANIC MATERIAL INTO IT’S BODY

2. SAPROPHYTIC NUTRITION : IN THIS MODE OF NUTRIYION , ORGANISM DRIVES THEIR NUTRITION FROM DEAD AND DECAYING MATTER . SUCH ORGANISMS BREAK-DOWN THE FOOD MATERIAL OUTSIDE THE BODY AND ABSORB THE DIGESTED FOOD MATERIAL.

    (Ex. :- fungi , like bread mould , yeasts and mushrooms.)

3. PARASITIC NUTIRITION : IN THIS MODE OF NUTRITION , ORGANISM OBTAIN FOOD FROM FROM OTHER ORTHER ORGANISMS (THE HOST) BY LIVING ON OR INSIDE THEIR BOBY WITHOUT KILLING THEM.

(Ex. :- cu8scuta (amar-bel) , ticks , lice ,leeches and tapeworm )

4. SYMBIOTIC NUTRITION : WHEN TWO ORGAMISMS ARE MATUALLY BENEFITTED BY LIVING IN CLOSE ASSOCIATION WITH EACH OTHER , THEY ARE CALLED SYMBIONT AND THIS MODE OF NUTRITION IS KNOWN AS SYMBIOYTIC NUTRITION.(Ex. :- lichen , it is a symbiotic association of algae and fungi)

Life processes are important to carry out daily life activities.

 How do organisms obtain their nutrition?

Mode of nutrition in single-celled organisms

  1. Amoeba: Amoeba is a unicellular organisms and thus, there are no specific organs to perform different functions . It does not possess a different shape
nutrition of amoeba

Figure : Nutrition in  Amoeba

 

Nutrition in Amoeba take place in the following manner :

i. Ingestion : intake food in amoeba occurs by temporary finger-like extensions of cell surface called pseudopodia which  fuse over the food particle forming a food vacuole.

ii. Digestion : inside the food vacuole , complex substances are broken down into similar ones. This is called intracellular digestion (digestion within the call)

iii. Absorption : the digested food then diffuses into the cytoplasm.

iv. Assimilation : the absorbed food is utilized to meet the energy requirements of Amoeba.

v. Egestion : the remaining undigested material is moved to the surface and thrown out of cell.

B) Paramecium 

 Paramecium has definite shape. In it the food is digested by a definite cell mouth or cytostome lying at the bottom of the buccal cavity. The food is moved to this spot by the movement of cillia which cover the entire surface of the cell. Ingested food is digested in food vacuole and the undigested food is egested from the anal pore.

paramecium

Nutrition in Human beings : Human Alimentary canal

  • Humans have the heterotrophic holozoic mode of nutrition. They have a well-developed digestive system responsible for ingestion, digestion, absorption, and assimilation. The digestive system in humans consists of a 6-9 m long continuous tube like alimentary canal or digestive tract starting from the mouth passing through the pharynx, the oesophagus, the stomach , the small and large intestine, and finally ending at the anus. Associated with it are the accessory organs for digestion i.e .,teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver and pancreas.
  • Life processes are important to carry out daily life activities.
  • v Gastro-intestinal tract is the portal (or gate) through which nutritive substances, vitamins, minerals and fluids enter the body and proteins, fats and carbohydrates are broken down into absorbable units. In the small intestine , they cross the mucus and enter the lymph or blood and then can be used by the body.\
Human elimantary canal

In human the upper portion of the alimentary canal is the mouth. It is bounded by lips and contains cheeks, gums, teeth, tongue and muscles. The teeth in the mouth chew and masticate the food to increase the surface area of the food so that various enzymes can act on it more effectively. The teeth are embedded in the jaws. Arrangement of teeth in the jaw is called dentition. There are two set of teeth presents in humans. Teeth which are present in childhood are the temporary teeth also called milk teeth which are later replaced by permanent of teeth

  • The small intestine then merges the large intestine which than the small intestine is the smaller , being 1.5 to 1.8 metre long . The large intestine is divided into three parts:a)Duodenum   
  • Jejunum      
  • Ileum
  • The chief function of the large intestine are the absorption of water and the elimination of solid wastes.

Functions of digestive system:

The digestive system is responsible for the breaking down of food and supplying water , nutrients , and electrolytes needed to sustain life to the body . this is brought about by the following process:-

  1. Ingestion : invovles
  2. Taking food into the mouth.
  3. Chewing the food to convert it into smaller food particle
  4. Moistening the food with salivary secretions.
  5. Swallowing the food.
  6. Digestion : During digestion , food is broken down into smaller particle by churning action of the gastro-intestinal tract and then broken down by enzmes into absorable food particle.

Digestive glans and the fuinctions of digestive enzymes :

Digestive gland associated with digestive system are as follow:

  • Salivary Gland : about 1-1.5 L of saliva is secreted by salivary gland.Saliva is composed of 90% water and conatins ptylin or salivary amylase enzyme . Salivary amylase acts on starch which is a complex molecule to form maltose sugar . It also has mucus which lubricates the food . the pH of salibva is 6.8 .
  • Gastric Glands : About 35 million gastric glands are found in the mucosa layer of stomach. \

Life processes are important to carry out daily life activities.

 Gastric gland generally secrete four types of enzmes :

  1. Mucus :- It is the inner layer of stomach which protect the inner linning of the stomach from excess secretion of HCL.
  2. Pepsin :- It helps in the digestion of proteins particles .
  3. Renin :- It helps in the digestion milk protein.
  4. HCL (HYDROCLORIC ACID) :- It helps in the softens of food. It kills the harmful bacteria ingested with food and disinfects the food. It makes the food acidic medium (pH 1.8) , which facilates the action of enzyme pepsin
  5. Liver : It the largest gland of the body. It secretes the Bile Jucie . It secretes about 0.5 to 1 litre per day .

Function of Bile:

  1. The food coming from the stomach is acidic and has to made alkaline for the pancreatic enzyme act on it .
  2. It breaks down the large food particles into small droplets , this process is known as emuisification of fats .
  3. Pancreas : It is about 2.5 cm wide and 12-15 cm long . It is located posterior to the stomach . 

   It secretes three types of enzymes :-

  1. Trypsin :- It helps in the digestion protein particle .
  2. Lipase :- It helps in the digesting of emlusified fats.
  3. Pancreatic Amylase :- It helps in the digestion of starch.
the pancreas

Fig. : The Pancreas

Life processes are important to carry out daily life activities.

  • Absorption : During absorption , nutrients , water and electrolytes are transported from the gastro-intestinal tract into the blood stream.
  • Assimilation : Absorbed food is utillised for obtaining energy , building up new tissues and repair of the old tissues .
  • Egestion : Removal of wastes products from the body is known as egestion of food
the small intestine
  • Fig. : The Small Intestine

For this article we have to special thanks to Mr. Suraj Kumar. Who wrote this article ” LIFE PROCESSES” with his full hard work. We are grateful for your article. Life processes are important to carry out daily life activities.

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Education initiatives to remove terrorism :Major 5 steps

In this article we are going to talk about various education initiatives to remove terrorism. So, without wasting any time let’s back to our main topic.

No doubt, educaton help us to eliminate terrorism. Terrorism is a biggest problem facing world now these days. Terrorism is an act of spreading violence through social media, kidnapping, bomb blasting or through any other medium. Sometimes terrorist spread terrorism among people on the basis of their religion which result in religion riots which further result in social war. The main aim of terrorist is to destruction of humanity .If people are educated and aware such  type of accidents should be stopped.

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For example, when the government of India in 2019 put forward the concept of  NRC ( National Register of Citizens) and CAA ( Citizenship Amendent Act). It is a matter of protesting  by muslims and many political parties without actually knowing what it is that. They not protest peacefully, their protest leads to riots in many states of India. 

Few people spread rumorous that it violates article 14, which guarantee equality to all. They allege that the new laws seeks to make Muslims second class citizen of India which preferentially treating non muslims in India. They took NRC and CAA in wrong way .But those who are literate didn’t took in a wrong way.   So, overall conclusion is that such situations can be avoided if people are educated.

Education initiatives to remove terrorism
Education initiatives to remove terrorism

If a country has high literacy rate then it has less  affected by terrorism. If a country has more affected by terrorism then it has low literacy rate. For example, Nigeria, Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakisthan, Syria  are the top five countries which are affected by terrorism and their literacy rate are 62%, 50.1%, 31.74%, 47% and 80% respectively. So, we can say that education and terrorism are opposite to each other 

Education help us to break the legacy of violence. Education help us to achieve peace. Education is key for improving the lives of others and for leaving your community and world better than you found it. Education is the most powerful weapon which we used to change the world.

Therefore some education initiatives to remove terrorism steps are required to make a country developed and free from terrorism.


Some education initiatives to remove terrorism steps are as follows :-

  • If  government  should make education free and compulsory upto secondary level.
  • Private schools always thinks about their profit from fees. So, some  institutions are required for an eye over them.
  • Scholarship given to poor students .
  • Parents spent their resources on girls also.
  • Government can make some strict laws on child labour.
  • Those parents who didn’t give education to their children should be imprisoned .
  • In backwards area schools should be made.

If we talk about India ,  in India many poor people didn’t have enough money to send their children in private schools . Therefore they send their children in government schools.
But students are unable to show their potential . Because most of the teachers in govt. school are less educated . They even didn’t taught chapters in classroom . Sometimes they cannot come in school. Due to which govt. schools did not run in efficient way. So, there is need to took some measures and make some rules which are strictly  followed by staff of govt. school.

Kashmir is more affected by terrorism. Terrorists use  religion as a way to spread terrorism. Many youngester were  brain washed by terrorist .To avoid  people from climbing the staircase some education initiatives to remove terrorism are required .

In Kashmir, the teachers didn’t have inadequate time to complete the syllabus of students. Their concepts should not be cleared at time.  So, during exam they are under pressure.If it is going on they only have degree not true education.  So, without true education how they know difference between wrong or right. So govt. need to take the responsibility of providing a better education for their better future.

Moreover,  the problem of terrorism can be better solved if all countries come together and put forward  some policies and schemes to reduce terrorism.

From this article we can easily see that  how much education is important to reduce terrorism. That’s why I say that some education initiatives to remove terrorism are required.

This article is not  made to hurt the feelings of any religion.

For this article we have to special thanks to Mr. Manpreet Singh. Who wrote this article ” Education initiatives to remove terrorism ” with his full hard work. We are grateful for your article.

One word, before we finish. We shall be grateful for your feedback. It will help us improve our services. Thanks in advance!

Does Development affect Economics : Check 3 Main Reason

In the article we are going to elaborate the chapter Development of economics class tenth with extreme simple words for easy understanding of the students. So, without wasting time let’s back to the main topic which is our study regarding to our chapter.

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Topics to be covered:

development-effect-economics
development-effect-economics

  • Development
  • Difference between growth and development
  • Two aspects of development
  • Income and other goals

     Development

  • Comparison through national income
  • Comparison to per capita income
  • World Bank report on per capita income
  • Public facilities
  • Body mass index
  • Human development report
  • Sustainable development

It is a such a situation that can fulfill the aspirations or desires of people.

Difference between growth and development:-

Growth              Development
1. It involves physical production of goods and services 1.Development means providing all the basic facility like education, electricity, etc.
2.Growth is a narrow concept.  2. Development is a broad concept.
3. Growth measures only goods and services. 3. Development measures literacy rate, health facility, net attendance ratio, etc.
4. Growth measures only GDP.

Two aspects of development:

1. Different persons can have different development goals.

2. Development for one may not be development for another. It may be destructive for the other.

For example, Industrialists want more dams for their electricity requirements but dams displace local community submerged forestland and effect the ecosystem.

           Income and other goals

1.Income is considered as the most important component of development as it can buy goods and services.

2. People desire regular work, better wages,  and decent price for their crops and other products.

3.Also seek equal treatment , freedom, security , respect of  others resent discrimination.

4. Quality of our life also depends on non material things.

5. Before accepting a job once look at facilities for their family , working atmosphere.

Hence, for development people look at mix of goals

           Comparison of countries

Comparison to National Income:-

National Income is the income of all the residents of the country of the period of time and and is also known as total income.

Drawbacks:- As countries have different population and comparing total income will not state the average amount earned by a person.

Comparison through Per Capita Income :-

development-effect-economics
development-effect-economics

Per Capita Income is calculated by dividing total income of a country by its total population . It is also called average income.

Drawbacks:-  It has a drawback as it hide disparities  e.g. when a small section of people has very high income, the average income also gets high and do not give proper idea about the actual situation.

World Bank report on Per Capita Income

The bank has classify the countries has follows:-

1. Countries with Per Capita Income of US $ 12,616  per annum or more termed as rich countries.

2.  Countries with Per Capita Income of US $ 1035 per annum or less are termed as low income countries.

In 2012 Indian per capita income was only about US $1530 per annum  and it was classified as a low income country

Public facilities

Monetary development or more average income may not procure you a better life. It cannot buy pollution free environment , unadulterated medicines or protection from diseases.

So, public facilities like primary education, secondary schools, healthcare facilities, cleanliness are also important for living.

Public distribution system for supply of food grains to poor people in rural areas at low subsidy.

Body Mass Index:-

If we divide the weight of a person by the square of his/her height, we get a ratio which is called Body Mass Index .

BMI = weight in kg divided by square of height in metre .

If the BMI is below 18.5, the person is undernourished and if it is over 25 the person is overweight. But the standard not applying for growing children.

       Human Development Report

Human Development Report published by UNDP ( United Nations Development Programme) is one of the best methods to measure development.

The report compares countries based on the following criteria :-

1. Per Capita Income

2. Life expectancy :- It is defined as the average number of years that a new born could expect to live if her or she were to pass through life .

As per National health profile 2019 the life expectancy of Indians is 68.7.

3. Literacy rate :- A proportion of the population of an area at particular time aged 7 or above, who can read or write with understanding.

According to 2011 census the literacy rate of India was 74.04%.

4. Enrolment ratio :- It determines the number of student enrolled in school at several different grade level. The data is defined as the percentage of students enroled in primary and secondary school on gender basis.

5. Infant Mortality Rate :-  Number of children that die before the age of 1 year in a proportion of 1000 live. children born in that particular area.

The infant Mortality rate for India in 2019 was 30 deaths per 1000 live birth.

6. Net attenndance ratio :-  The total number of children of age group 6 to 10 enrolled in or attending primary school, as a . percentageof the total number of children are primary school

India occupies 129th rank in Human Development Index (HDI) 2019

HDI = life expectancy index + gross enrolment ratio + per capita income divided by 3

Sustainable development :-

It means development should take place without harming the environment in other words the present pace, should not compromise with the needs of future generation.

Sustainable Development
Sustainable Development

There is a need of sustainable development due to excessive mining of iron , gold , silver or coal and extraction of crude oil lead to depletion of the  stock of these resources. smoke and other poisonous gases being released from factories lead to environment pollution.

For this article we have to special thanks to Mr. Manpreet Singh. Who wrote this article “Development” with his full hard work. We are grateful for your article.

One word, before we finish. We shall be grateful for your feedback. It will help us improve our services. Thanks in advance!

Resources and Development Are Interlinked Are Not : 1.Check Now

In the article we are going to elaborate the chapter “Resources and Development” of geography with extreme simple words for easy understanding of the students. So, without wasting time let’s back to the main topic which is our study regarding to our chapter.

Topics to be covered:-

•Resources
•Classification of resources
  *On the basis of origin
  *On the basis of exhaustibility
  *On the basis of ownership
  *On the basis of status of development

• Need for the development of resources
• Sustainable development
• Resource planning in India
 • Three steps of resource planning
•  Some steps towards resource conservation
•  Land as a resource
•  Land use pattern in India
•  Net sown area in different states
•  Land degradation and conservation measures
•  Soil as a resource
•  Classification of soil
•  Soil erosion
    * Causes
    * Ways to soil conservation

Resources

Anything that can be used to satisfy human needs is termed as resource .
                          or
Anything in our in environment that can be used to satisfy human needs which is technology accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable can be termed as resource.

Generally we can classify resource into three categories:-

1. Natural resources :-


These resources are obtained from nature e.g flora, fauna ,metals,wind, etc .

2.Human made resources:-


These resources are made by human. These resources are perfect example that resources and development is interlinked.
e.g building.

3 Human resources:-


Human themselve is termed as resource because with the help of their skills and technology, they transform material present in the nature into economically viable resources. Human make resources and development

Classification of resources:

Natural resource can be classified as follows

On the basis of origin


1 Biotic resources:-
These resources consists of living things e.g. wildlife, human beings, flora, etc.

2. Abiotic resources:-
These resources consists of non living things e.g. soil, water, air, land, etc.

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On the basis of exhaustibility

1. Renewable resources:-
These resource get renewed or replenish quickly through chemical, mechanical or physical process e.g. solar energy, wind energy,water, etc.

It can further  sub divided into two forms

• Flow or continuous resource:-  resources :-
  These resources do not remain in one location and moves due to natural action in environment. It can be used and replenished at same time e.g, wind, tides , etc.

•Biological resource:-
These resources are formed by biological process.

It further divided into two groups
*Natural vegetation ( flora)
*Wildlife ( fauna)

2. Non renewable resources:-
These resources cannot get renewed and take million of years to formed e.g,  fossil fuels, minerals, metals, etc.

It can further sub divided into two forms

• Recyclable (e.g, metals)
• Non recyclable (e.g, fossil fuels)

On the basis of ownership

1. Individual resources:-
These resources are owned  privately by individual e g, plantation, farmland, water in well, etc.

2. Community owned resources:-
These are the resources which are accessible to all the members of the community e.g, burial grounds, ponds in village, public park, etc.

3. National resources:-
   These resources are belong to the nation or country e.g, canal, mines, territorial sea , (upto 12 nautical miles) etc.

4. International resources:-
    These resources are regulated by international institutions e g, open sea used for peaceful navigation , open sky for flight movement, etc.
    The oceanic resources beyond 200 nautical miles of the EEZ ( Economic Exclusive Zone) belong to open sea

On the basis of the status of development

1. Potential resources:-
These are the resources whose quantity and utilisation is not known  at present time  but may be found in future e.g, solar and wind energy in Gujarat.

2. Developed resources:-
These are the resources whose quality and  quantity is known for their utilisation e.g, coal and petroleum.

3. Stock:-
These resources have potential to satisfy human needs but they do not have appropriate technology to access them e.g, hydrogen and oxygen in water is a rich source of energy

4. Reserves:-
These resources have technology to access them but their exploration is not started because they are saved for future generations to fulfill their requirements e.g, forests.

Resources and Development is interlinked we have to develop with sustainable development.

Let us clearly understand difference between potential and developed resources. Take an example, when uranium is discovered it is potential resource because we did not know how to use it but when we know its use then it is converted into developed resource.

Need for the devolpment of resources:-

No doubt that resources are free gift of nature . But due to human activities and increase in population resources are at a pace of destroying or finishing.  Resources and development is interlinked so, we have to do everything with respect to each other.
Due to which future generation are not able to fulfill their needs.

Over utilisation of resources led to many problems:-
• Depletion of resources by few individual due to their greedy behaviour.
• Unequal distribution of resources divided society into ‘have ‘ or ‘ have not’. Due to which society is divided into rich and poor.
• It led to soil erosion, land degradation, global warming, ozone layer depletion, water pollution, air pollution, etc.

Therefore a fair distribution of resources is important and this cannot be done without proper planning.

Basically Resources and Development are inter-connected.

Sustainable devolpment:

Sustainable development means development should take place without harming the environment and development at present should not compromise with the need of future generation. This lead to good interlinkage of Resources and Development.

Resource planning in India

Resource planning means dentification and quantification of the available resources along with their development. We need resource planning because there are some regions which are rich in certain resources and deficient in some other resources.

If we have to develop something we have to go for development with resources because Resources and Development are inter-connected.

For example, Arunchal Pradesh has abundance of water resource but lack in infrastructural development whereas Rajasthan has abundance of wind and solar energy but lack in water resource.

India followed the policy of resource planning from the first five year plan after the independence.

Three steps of resource planning

1. Identification and inventory of   resources.
2 . Evolving a planning structure
3. Matching the resources devolpment plans with overall national development plans

Some steps towards resource conservation:

• The concept of sustainable development was formed in June 1992  at the first United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, attended by 100 countries held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This summit supported Agenda 21 to achieve global sustainable development. The objectives of Agenda 21 are eliminate poverty, hunger, sickness, illiteracy and reduce deterioration of the environment.

• In 1987,the Brutland Commission Report mentioned the neccesity of resource conservation band advocated  the concept of sustainable development for this purpose . This report was published in a book entitled ‘Our Communication n Future’.

• In1968, at the international level, the Club of Rome advocated resource conservation for the first time in systematic way.

• In1974, Gandhian philosophy about resource conservation was presented by Schumacher in his book ‘Small is Beautiful’.

Land as a resource:

Land is a very important important natural resource for us because we use it for various purpose like to build homes, to grow crops, for transportation, communication,  all economic activities , etc.  It is limited as population increase they require more shelter, more fields to grow crops as a result land is go on to decrease. So, we need to use land with care and concern.

India’s geographical area compromise:
• Plain land area for Agriculture and industry .(43 % )
• Mountains which provide river water and sites for tourism and ecological aspects (30%)
• Plateaus which is a source of minerals, fossil fuels and forests (27%)

Land use pattern in India

The use of land is determined by the following factors:-

• Physical factors ( include climate, soil type, topography , etc.)
• Human factors ( include population density, cultural, traditions, technologies, capability, etc.)

Land utilisation

1.Forests
2.Land not available for cultivation
  * Barren and waste land
  * land put to non agricultural uses, e.g, buildings, etc .
  3.Other uncultivated land
  • Permanent pastures and grazing lands
  • land under miscellaneous tree crops and groves
  • left uncultivated for more than 5 agricultural years
  4.Fallow land
   • Current fallow(less than 1 year)
   • Other than current fallow (between 1 to 5 years)
   5.Net Sown Area ( it represents an area where in which total crops are grown only once in a year)

Resources and Development
Image from the NCERT Book.

At present India has 130 million hectare of waste land which compromises of:-
• Forest degraded area (28%)
• Water eroded area (56%)
• Wind eroded area (10%)
• Affected by saline and alkaline deposit (6%)

Total geographical area of India is 3.28 million sq.km.But land use data is available only for 93% of total area because land use reporting of North Eastern states except Assam and some part of Jammu and Kashmir has not been surveyed.

Major policy took place in land use pattern

• As per the National Policy of 1952 every nation must have 33% Forest area for the maintenance of ecological balance.

Net sown area in different states

Net sown area vary from place to place to place. e.g  In  Punjab, 80% land is under net sown area due to agricultural facilities whereas it is only 10% in Assam , A.P, Manipur.

Land degradation and conservation measures

Land degradation means decrease in quality of land such that its nutrient and fertility is destroyed and we are unable to grow crop in that area.It is done by human activities and due to natural forces. Soil erosion is also a part of land degradation. Soil degradation is due to because we are not taking Resources and Development in one way, we are taking it in two ways. But Resources and Development is interlinked.

All the causes and measures of soil erosion , we can write in the place of land degradation causes and measures as we know that soil erosion is a part of land degradation.

Causes of land degradation:-

1. Deforestation
2. Over grazing
3. Constructions
4. Mining and quarrying
5. Wind erosion ( consists of gully erosion and sheet erosion )
6. Water erosion
7. Excessive use of fertilizers, pesticides, etc
8. Over irrigation
9. Industrialisation

Measures:-

1. Crop rotation
2. Modern type of irrigation (drip irrigation and sprinkle irrigation)
3. Constructing suitable dams
4. Restricting animal grazing
5. Afforestation
6. Contour ploughing and terrace farming in hilly areas
7. Strip cropping
8. Shelter belts
9. Use of manure in the fields instead of chemicals
10. Mulching
11. Managing waste land
12. Proper discharge of industrial wastes after treatment
13. Control over mining activities

Soil as a resource

Soil is the most renewable natural resource as it is the medium of plant growing and supports different types of living organisms on the earth.

Soil is formed due to change in temperature, action of running water, action of wind , activities of decomposers, etc. Soil consists of organic and inorganic material.

Classification of Soil:

According to ICAR ( Indian Council of Agriculture Research) there are 8 types of soil found in India :-

1. Alluvial soil

• It covers 45.6 per cent of India’s total geographical area.

• It is formed due to the deposition of sediments by rivers( mainly Ganga, Brahmaputra, Indus).

• Two types of alluvial soil:-

   Bhangar
   *It is also known as old alluvial soil.
   *It has higher concentration of kanker nodules.
   *It has less fertility than khadar.
   *It is found farther away from the river.

Khadar
*It is also known as new alluvial soil.
*It is more fertile .
*It is found near the banks of river.
*It has fine particles.

• It is found farther n Gujarat,. Rajasthan, U.P, Bihar, Assam and in coastal regions.

• Alluvial soil in the drier areas are more alkaline and need fertilizers and good irrigation.

• It consists of various proportions of sand, silt and clay

• It is rich in potash ,  phosphoric acid and lime but deficient in nitrogen .

• It is suitable for growing paddy, wheat, sugarcane, pulses and cereals.

2. Black soil ( regur soil)

• It covers 16 per cent of India’s total geographical area.

• It is formed due to volanic eruption.

• It is also known as self ploughing soil.

• It is found in the Plateaus of Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and the valleys of Krishna and Godavari.

• It is rich in iron, lime, aluminium, magnesium calcium but lacks in nitrogen,  phosphorus and humus.
• It is made up of fine i.e clayey particles.

• It is well known for for their capacity to hold moisture.

• It is suitable for growing cotton.

• It is sticky when wet and difficult to titled immediately after the first shower or during the pre monsoon period.

3. Red and yellow soil

• It covers 10.6 per cent of India’s total geographical area.

• It is formed in low rainfall area due to the erosion of metamorphic rocks which contain iron, aluminium , etc.

• It develop a reddish colour due to the diffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks. It looks yellow when it occurs in a hydrated form.

• It is found in Tamil Nadu, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, and the Chhotanagpur plateau areas of Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand.

• It is rich in iron and potash but deficient in lime, nitrogen, phosphorus and humus

• It is suitable for growing wheat, rice ,cotton, sugarcane and pulses.

4. Laterite soil

• It covers 7.2 per cent of India’s total geographical area.

• It is formed in areas with high temperature and heavy rainfall, resulting in intense leaching due to heavy rain.

• Laterite word has been derived from Latin word later which means brick.

•Thus soil has low humus content as the microorganisms can not survive.

•It can be made cultivate with adequate amounts of manure and fertilizers.

•It is found in summits of Eastern and Western Ghats, Assam hills, A.P, Karnataka, West Bengal and Odisha.

• It is rich in iron but deficient in lime, phosphorus, potash and humus.

• It is suitable for growing tea, coffee, rubber, cashew and millets.

5. Desert or arid soil

• It covers 4 per cent of India’s total geographical area.

• It is sandy in texture, red to brown in colour and saline in nature.

• It  lacks humus and moisture due to dry climate, high temperature and higher rate of evaporation.

• It is rich in soluble salt (common salt ) but deficient in organic matter.

• Generally unsuitable for cultivation, but with irrigation useful for the cultivation of millets, barley, maize and pulses .

• It is found in West and North-West India , Rajasthan, North Gujarat and Southern Punjab.

• In the lower horizons of the soil, kanar are found due to increasing calcium content downwards, which restrict the infiltration of water.

6. Forest and mountain soil

• It covers 8 per cent of India’s total geographical area.

• It is found in hills of the Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Arunchal Pradesh and in Assam hills.

• It is rich in iron and humus but deficient in lime

• It is generally found in high rainfall area.

• It is loamy and silty in  valley sides and coarsed grained in the upper slopes.

• It is acidic in nature due to low humus content.

• With fertilizers , tea, fruits and medicinal plants can be grown.

Resources And Development
Image From NCERT book

Soil erosion

Soil erosion is the removal and subsequent washing down of top soil.

Causes:-

1. Deforestation
2. Over grazing
3. Constructions
4. Mining
5. Wind erosion ( consists of gully erosion and sheet erosion )
6. Water erosion ( erosion of top layer of soil caused by running water)
7. Excessive use of fertilizers, pesticides, etc
8. Over irrigation
9. Industrlisation

Ways to soil conservation:-

1. Crop rotation
2. Modern type of irrigation (drip irrigation and sprinkle irrigation)
3. Constructing suitable dams
4. Restricting animal grazing
5. Afforestation
6. Contour ploughing and terrace farming in hilly areas
7. Strip cropping ( large fields can be divide into strips,Strips of grass are left to grow between the crops )
8. Shelter belts ( planting rows of trees    create shelter along the edge of fields )
9. Use of manure in the fields instead of chemicals
10. Mulching
11.  Control over mining activities

This is the whole in the chapter Resources and Development . We hope that you enjoy this chapter while reading. We gave our best effort to write these notes for you on this topic ” Resources and Development “. But Don’t forget guys these two Resources and development is interlinked.

For this article we have to special thanks to Mr. Manpreet Singh. Who wrote this article “Resources and Development” with his full hard work. We are grateful for your article.

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What is C++ : Best 3 Programme Examples Check Now

Lets Start Learning with us What is C++From Where it is develop…..

The C++ programming language was developed at AT&T bell laboratories in the early 1980s by BJARNE STROUSTRUP. He found ‘C’ lacking simulations and decided to extend the ‘C’ by adding some features from his favourite language Simula67. Simula67 was the earliest object oriented programming languages [Object oriented programming: It is a programming paradigm(way of writting)].

From here I hope you understand What is C++ .


Now lets talk about how to start learning C++

C++ Basics

In this section we are going to explain you about what consist of C++. In other words we are going to show you about what builds C++ language i.e.,Character Set and Tokens i.e.( Keywords, Identifiers, Literals, Punctuators and Operators).

Now lets talk about C++ character set:-

C++ Character Set


A character set is a set of valid characters that a language\compiler can recognise. A character represents any letter, digit, or any other sign. C++ has following character set:-


Letters:- A-Z,a-z
Digit:- 0-9
Special Symbols:- Space + - * / ^ \ ( ) [ ] { } = < > . ' " $ , ; : % ! & ? _(underscore) # <= >= @
White Space:- Blank space, Horzontal Tab, Carriage return, Newline, Form feed.
Other Character:- C++ can process any of 256 ASCII character as data or as literals.

Now lets talk about Tokens:-

C++ Tokens:-

The smallest individual component or unit in a program is known as tokens. C++ has following tokens:
Keywords, Identifiers, Literals, Punctuators and operators.

1.Keywords:- Keywords are the words which convey a special meaning to the compiler. In simple words keywords are those words which already saved in the compiler with their special meanings and we can’t change them.
C++ contain following keywords:

What is C++ Keywords
Img from sumita arora book

2.Identifiers:-Identifiers are user defined words, these are those words which a programmer define during a programming.
For better understandation let us take a example:

           Program:

           //To add two number
           #include<iostream.h>
           #include<conio.h>
           void main()
           {
            int a,b,sum;  //here we are defining a,b,sum as a integer variables, These are identifiers.Here we are explaining to the compiler.
            cout<<"Enter two no. to add\n";
            cin>>a>>b;
            sum=a+b;
            cout<<"The sum of two numbers is"<<sum;
            getch(); //for holding the screen.
           }

           //ignore the program just learn identifiers from the program , program writting tutorial with video is coming soon.

Some valid identifiers in c++ (mean how to write identifiers):

Myfile ,DATE97_7_6 ,MYFILE ,_CHK .Some invalid identifiers in c++ (mean how not to write identifiers):

DATA-RECORD //contain special character.
56DATA //starting with digit
break //it is a keyword
My.file //contain special character.

3.Literals:-Literals are data types which constants.In other words these are those type of variables which didn’t change their value during program run.
C++ allows several kind of literals:
(i)integer constant (ii)character constant
(iii)floating constant (iv)string literal

(i)Integer constants:Integer constant are whole numbers without any fraction.
C++ allow three types integer constant:
(i)Decimal(base 10)
(ii)Octal(base 8)
(iii)Hexadecimal(base 16)

(ii)Character constants:Character constants are single character enclosed in single quotes. For more clearification let us take example: ‘a’ //here a is character constants.
Even non-graphic characters can be represented by using escape sequences.A you want to use escape sequence, it followed by backslash().

                          ESCAPE SEQUENCES    NON-GRAPHIC CHARACTER
                          \a                    Audible Bell
                          \b                    Backspace
                          \f                    Form feed
                          \n                    New line
                          \r                    Carriage return
                          \t                    Horizontal tab
                          \v                    Vertical Tab
                          \\                    Backslash
                          \'                    Single quotes
                          \"                    Double quotes
                          \?                    Question mark
                          \On                   Octal number
                          \xHn                  Hexadecimal number
                          \0                    Null character

(iii)Floating constants:Floating constants are numbers having fractional parts. It can be write in two forms one is fractional and other is exponent form. That’s why it also called as real constants.
Some valid real constants in fractional form[in this way we can write it].
2.0 , 17.5 , -13.0 , -0.00635
Some invalid real constants in fractional form[in this way we can’t write it].
7 , 7. , 17/2 , 16,3.3
Some valid real constants in exponent form[in this way we can write it].
152E34, 1.766E66 , 154E+5
Some invalid real constants in exponent form[in this way we can’t write it].
123.E3, 1.7E, 143,5E , 12E-7

(iv)String Literals:Characters are treated in C++ in two if character is one and enclosed in single quotes than is called character constants.
Eg:’A’,’a’
If character are more than one and enclosed in double quotes than are called as string constants.
Eg: “ABC”, “abc”

4.Punctuators:Punctuators are which enhance a program’s readability and give proper meaning to statements,expresions etc, as per syntax.
Following are used as punctuator in C++:
[] () {} , ; : *…. = #

5.C++ Operators:

Operators are tokens that trigger some computation or action when applied to variables and other objects in an expression.
In other words these are those tokens which do any action when applied on any variable.

In C++ there are mainly four types of operators are available:

(i)Input/output Operators:First we are going to talk about input operator which is ‘>>’. This operator helps you to input the value. For more clearification let us take a example:
Program:

#include  //for using input/output operator you have you use header file iostream.h .
void main()
{
int a; //defined a variable of type integer
cin>>a; //using input variable we are taking the value from the user.
…….
…..
}

Same way for sending output to the output screen we have to you output operator which is ‘<<‘.
Eg:
Program:

#include  //for using input/output operator you have you use header file iostream.h .
void main()
{
int a=25;
cout<<a; //using input variable we are sending the value to the user.
…….
…..
}
Output screen:
25

2.Arithmetic Operator:For arithmetic C++ uses operators. For basic arithmetic it provide five operators forcalculations: addition, subtraction,multiplication,division and remanider which are +,-,*,/and% respectively.

3.Increment/Decrement Operator:The increment operator ++ , adds 1 to its operand and the decrement operator –, subtracts 1 from its operands.
Eg1:a+1=++a ,a-1=–a
If operator is used before value than value is first increased/decreased and then use in expression.
Eg2:a=2; b=3; ++a + b=6;
If operator is used after value than value is first used in the expression and then increased/decreased by 1.
Eg3:a=2; b=3; a++ + b=5;// now after this expression the value of a is 3
a+b=6;

4.Relational Operator:Relational operator determine the relation among different operands. C++ provides six relational operator for comparing numbers and characters. But they don,t work with strings. If the comparisn is true, the relation expression result into the value 1 and to 0, if the comparison is false the six relation operators are:


<(less than) , <=(less than or equal to), ==(equal to) >(greater than), >=(greater than or equal to) and !=(not equal to)

5.Logical operators:C++ provides three logical operators are those three are:
logical OR(||), logical AND(&&)and logical NOT(!)

6.Conditional operator: C++ offers a conditional operator (?:) that stores depending upon the a condition. The general form of conditional operator ?: is a s follows: expression1?expression2:expression3.If expression evalute to true i.e.,1, then the value of the whole expression is the value expression2, otherwise ,the value of the whole expression the value of expression is expression3.
Eg:result=marks>=50?’P’:’F’;

C++ Data Types:

Data types are means to identify the type of data and associated operation for handling it.
C++ data types are of two types 1.Fundamental types. 2.Derived data types

1.Fundamental Types:(i)int data type: This data type defined that this value is integer.


Eg:int a; // defined that value of type integer i.e., value can be 1,44,55.


(ii)char data type:This data type defined that this value is a type of character type.


Eg: char a; //defined that value of type character i.e.,value can be a,d,h,etc.


(iii)Float data type :This is also a type of integer but in this value can be fractional or exponentional.


Eg: float a; //defined that value can be 4.4,45.2,0.55,etc.


(iv)Double Data Type: The double data type is also used for handling floating point numbers. But it is treated as distinct data type because it occupies the twice as much memory as type float,and stores value with more precision.


(v)void data type:The void means empty. This data type used as the return type for the function that is never return a value.


2.Derived data types: These are those data types which are derived from fundamental data types.


These are 1.Arrary, 2.Function, 3.Pointer, 4.Reference, 5.Constant.


6.Some derived data types are also user defined:


1.Class 2.Structure 3.Union 4.Enumeration

Continue with next article :-

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